Asynchronous Messaging Architectures

Software architectures are full of opinions. They are usually the result of one person’s bias towards a specific technology, or a specific approach to developing software. Sometimes software architectures are the result of reading something in a book or seeing something in a video and believing that it’s the answer to the world’s problems. In this post, I’ll share my opinion, and my desired architecture for my own software.

Being the lead developer on the Neuron ESB product for the last 3-and-a-half years, I’ve definitely learned a lot about modern enterprise architectures. Before working on Neuron as a consultant, I definitely built some very complex monolithic systems. I never really thought about message queuing or aynchronous tasks. Everything was implemented to happen right away. All work happened within the lifetime of a single request on the server.

So after my experience (or during, as that experience is still ongoing), I’ve definitely become more appreciative of messsage-based architectures. In these architectures, you make use of a queuing system and queuing patterns to distribute work across multiple components. Message-based architectures are also very useful for just sending event notifications between different systems. But my favorite aspect of message-based architectures is how they open up a system to better handle extension and evolution over time. Different pieces of the solution can be changed and removed or added just by connecting to the message bus. New events can be created. New work can be composed with existing work. Basically, good things can happen.

If I were ever to leave Neuron ESB to work on another product or project, or when I develop my own applications moving forward, I am definitely going to include a message bus in them. With microservices finally catching on and systems becoming much more distributed in the Amazon and Azure clouds, a message bus is necessary for building scalable and efficient applications.

Let’s look at a message-based architecture for a public website, which I actually am building. This website will actually be live and will be for a real company; a small software development company that I am starting Naked Coders. Naked Coders website will be hosted at, and will be hosted using Amazon Web Services and Heroku. Heroku will host the application components, but since Heroku exists inside Amazon’s cloud, applications running on Heroku can take advantage of Amazon’s cloud services as well.

Naked Coders website architecture

The initial architecture for the Naked Coders website has three components. The website itself will be mostly static content or dynamic content driven by JavaScript. The website will be pre-generated using Jekyll. The website will be hosted as a static website using Amazon Web Services’s S3 service. S3 is a cheap service that supports being used as a web server for static websites that are publicly accessible. However, when people browse the website, they won’t actually be going directly to S3. What I am instead is using AWS’s CloudFront service to serve the actual content. CloudFront is a content delivery network that is operated by Amazon Web Services. CloudFront operates edge servers all around the world and will cache my website’s content local to where users are accessing the Internet in order to speed up the website experience. CloudFront also allows me to associate a custom domain name and an SSL certificate for the website.

For dynamic functionality or behavior that needs to run on the server and not in the web browser, I’m implementing an application server with a web API that JavaScript in my website will call to perform actions. The API server will be written in Go and will be hosted on Heroku.

Finally, I am going to introduce a RabbitMQ broker into the architecture. The API server will generate events that will be published to the RabbitMQ broker. At the moment, there’s not gong to be anything listening to events, but that will change as I build out the website. But as I’m implementing features, I’ll identify what those events are and might implement something to actually process the events. For the time being, I’ll publish events and those events will be quietly discarded by the RabbitMQ broker. In the future, I’ll add something to RabbitMQ so that messages are not discarded, but moved to an error queue that I can monitor and review for errors.

RabbitMQ defines two entities for messaging: exchanges and queues. Messages are published to exchanges, and then exchanges route the messages to queues. Subscribers or receivers will read messages from queues, and messages are stored in queues in the order in which the messages are received from exchanges.

RabbitMQ has four types of exchanges:

  • direct: messages are routed to queues based on a routing key. The routing key on the message must match the routing key that was used to bind the queue to the exchange. The default exchange uses the name of the queue to route messages to a single queue.
  • fanout: fanout exchanges implement a typical publish-subscribe pattern. When a message is published to a fanout exchange, the message is routed to all queues that are bound to the exchange. This is also known as a broadcast pattern.
  • topic: topic exchanges implement the fanout pattern but use the routing key to determine which queues should receive the message. When queues are bound to exchanges, rules are added to the binding to indicate what messages the queue is interested in receiving from the exchange based on the routing key of the message. When a message is published to the exchange, the routing key is compared to the binding rules to determine if the message is delivered to the queue or not.
  • headers: header exchanges are similar to topics, but instead of delivering messages based on the routing key, messages are delivered based on the values of one or more headers in the message.

For the website, I’m going to start off using one exchange that is a topic exchange. I will specify the kind of message being published to the exchange as the routing key, and I will subscribe queues to the exchange to receive different kinds of events.

Website exchange and queues

In my next post, I’ll build out my first feature, user registration, and I will demonstrate publishing my first events to my RabbitMQ server.